The Stepford Wives by Ira Levin: Study Guide & Literary Analysis (2024)

Introduction

Welcome to the fascinating world of The Stepford Wives by Ira Levin! 📚 This chilling novel, first published in 1972, dives deep into themes of suburban life, feminism, and the uncanny. Ira Levin, the mastermind behind this work, is renowned for his ability to blend science fiction with horror, creating stories that linger in the mind long after the last page is turned. The Stepford Wives stands out as a hallmark of speculative fiction, offering a critical look at the roles and expectations of women during the time it was written.

Contents

The book is set in the idyllic suburban town of Stepford, Connecticut, where Joanna Eberhart and her family move, seeking a peaceful life away from the hustle and bustle of New York City. However, as they settle in, Joanna begins to notice something deeply unsettling about the eerily perfect housewives of Stepford. The genre of this novel can be classified as a mix of science fiction, horror, and psychological thriller, cleverly weaving together societal critiques with suspenseful storytelling. Levin’s ability to capture the zeitgeist of the early ’70s, combined with his crisp, engaging prose, makes The Stepford Wives a must-read for anyone interested in the intersection of gender, technology, and society. Let’s dive deeper into this intriguing tale! 🕵️‍♂️👩‍👩‍👧‍👦

Plot Summary

The Stepford Wives unfolds with a gripping narrative structure, segmented into key events from the exposition to the resolution. Here’s how the suspenseful plot develops:

Exposition — The story begins with Joanna Eberhart, a talented photographer and a modern woman, moving with her husband, Walter, and their two children to the idyllic suburban town of Stepford, Connecticut, in search of a tranquil life.

Rising Action — As they settle in, Joanna becomes friends with Bobbie Markowe, another newcomer with a similarly independent spirit. The two women notice that most of the Stepford wives seem eerily perfect, obsessed with housework and pleasing their husbands, lacking any interests or characteristics of their own. Their curiosity turns into unease as they start investigating.

Climax — The turning point comes when Bobbie suddenly transforms overnight into a docile, housework-obsessed Stepford wife, completely abandoning her previous personality and friendship with Joanna. This drastic change leads Joanna to the horrifying realization that the men of Stepford, including her husband, are replacing their wives with robot duplicates, indistinguishable from the real ones but completely submissive and obsessed with domestic chores.

Falling Action — In a desperate attempt to avoid Bobbie’s fate, Joanna confronts the Men’s Association, the group she believes is responsible for the transformations. Her investigation reveals the depth of the conspiracy and the lengths to which the men of Stepford will go to create their “ideal” wives.

Resolution — The novel concludes with Joanna being caught and presumably subjected to the same fate as the other women, her independent spirit crushed as she becomes another Stepford wife. The story ends with the chilling normalization of this transformation, as life in Stepford continues as if nothing had happened, with the men satisfied with their compliant, robot spouses and the women’s true selves erased.

This plot encapsulates a profound commentary on the roles of women in society, the illusion of the perfect suburban life, and the lengths to which patriarchal systems will go to maintain control.

Character Analysis

In The Stepford Wives, Ira Levin crafts a compelling cast of characters, each serving as a critical piece in the exploration of gender roles, autonomy, and conformity. Here’s a closer look at the main characters:

  • Joanna Eberhart — Joanna is a spirited and talented photographer who values her independence and creativity. Throughout the story, her growing unease with the town of Stepford and its eerily perfect wives propels the narrative forward. Her determination to uncover the truth behind Stepford’s facade drives much of the plot, but tragically, she ultimately becomes a victim of the very conspiracy she seeks to expose.
  • Walter Eberhart — Walter, Joanna’s husband, initially appears supportive and loving. However, as the story unfolds, his true colors are revealed. He becomes complicit in the Stepford conspiracy, valuing the societal ideal of a “perfect” wife over his actual wife’s autonomy and spirit. Walter’s transformation from ally to antagonist highlights the betrayal felt by the women of Stepford.
  • Bobbie Markowe — Bobbie is introduced as Joanna’s friend and ally, sharing her skepticism of Stepford’s perfection. Her transformation into a Stepford wife serves as the story’s pivotal moment, signifying the real and present danger to the town’s women. Bobbie’s character arc from independence to forced conformity is a critical commentary on the loss of identity and autonomy.
  • Charmaine Wimperis — As another of Joanna’s friends, Charmaine initially displays a love for tennis and a disinterest in domestic perfection. However, after her transformation, she becomes obsessed with housework, symbolizing the erasure of women’s individuality and passions in favor of a patriarchal ideal.
  • Dale Coba — The former engineer and the leader of the Men’s Association represents the sinister force behind Stepford’s transformations. His character embodies the patriarchal desire to control and reshape women according to male fantasies, highlighting the dehumanizing aspects of objectification.

Character Analysis Summary

CharacterPersonality/MotivationsCharacter Development
Joanna EberhartIndependent, creative, curiousFrom a hopeful newcomer to a determined investigator, ultimately a victim of Stepford’s conspiracy
Walter EberhartSupportive, then revealing complicity with Stepford’s idealsShifts from Joanna’s loving husband to a participant in the conspiracy against her
Bobbie MarkoweSkeptical, independent, vibrantUndergoes a dramatic change, from Joanna’s ally to another Stepford wife, highlighting the threat to all women in Stepford
Charmaine WimperisFree-spirited, disinterested in domestic perfectionTransforms into a domestic-obsessed Stepford wife, losing her originality
Dale CobaManipulative, embodies patriarchal controlConstant as the menacing force behind the conspiracy, emphasizing the novel’s critique of male-dominated societal norms

Each character in The Stepford Wives plays a crucial role in unfolding the narrative’s themes of autonomy, identity, and the critique of societal norms.

Themes and Symbols

The Stepford Wives by Ira Levin is rich with themes and symbols that critique societal norms and explore deep psychological fears. Here’s a look at the major ones:

Themes

  • Subjugation of Women — The primary theme of the novel revolves around the systematic subjugation and objectification of women, represented by the transformation of independent women into docile, subservient housewives. This reflects broader societal critiques of gender roles and the marginalization of women’s desires and ambitions.
  • The Illusion of Perfection — Stepford represents the idealized version of suburban life, with its perfect homes and perfect wives. This theme critiques the pressure to conform to unrealistic standards of beauty, behavior, and domesticity, revealing the destructive nature of such ideals.
  • Loss of Identity — As the women of Stepford are replaced by their robotic counterparts, the theme of identity loss is prominent. It underscores the erasure of individuality and autonomy, questioning what it truly means to be human.
  • Patriarchal Control — The men of Stepford, particularly through the Men’s Association, exert ultimate control over their wives, designing them to fit their idealized vision. This theme exposes the dangers of patriarchal systems that seek to define and limit women’s roles and behaviors.

Symbols

  • The Stepford Wives Themselves — The robotic wives symbolize the commodification of women, reducing them to objects designed to fulfill male fantasies. They represent the erasure of women’s complexity, desires, and independence.
  • The Men’s Association — This group symbolizes the institutional mechanisms through which patriarchal control is exerted. It stands for the collective effort to maintain male dominance and enforce traditional gender roles.
  • Joanna’s Camera — Joanna’s camera represents her autonomy and perspective, both literally and figuratively. As her camera is taken away and eventually broken, it symbolizes the loss of her independent viewpoint and the suppression of her identity.
  • Stepford Itself — The town of Stepford serves as a symbol of the facade of suburban bliss. Beneath its perfect surface lies a dark reality of conformity, loss of self, and the suppression of dissent.

The themes and symbols in The Stepford Wives work together to create a haunting critique of societal norms and the dangers of conforming to oppressive ideals. Through its narrative, the novel warns of the dehumanizing effects of seeking perfection at the cost of individuality and freedom.

Style and Tone

The writing style and tone of Ira Levin in The Stepford Wives play crucial roles in shaping the mood and atmosphere of the novel, enhancing its themes and impact on the reader. Here’s an in-depth look:

  • Economic and Precise — Levin’s prose is characterized by its clarity and brevity. He efficiently builds tension and develops characters without superfluous details, which keeps the narrative pace quick and engaging. This directness makes the unfolding horror of Stepford’s secret more striking.
  • Atmospheric Descriptions — The descriptions of Stepford and its inhabitants are crafted with an attention to detail that serves to both charm and unsettle the reader. Levin uses the idyllic suburban setting to contrast sharply with the underlying horror, amplifying the sense of unease as the story progresses.
  • Understated Horror — Levin employs a tone of understated horror, where the most terrifying aspects of the story are implied rather than explicitly described. This subtlety leaves much to the imagination, making the reader’s realization of the truth behind Stepford even more chilling.
  • Satirical Edge — The novel carries a satirical tone, critiquing the mid-20th-century American suburban life and the gender norms of the era. Levin’s portrayal of the Men’s Association and the transformation of the women into idealized wives is both a critique and a darkly comic exaggeration of societal expectations.
  • Psychological Intensity — Through the eyes of Joanna, the reader experiences the growing tension and paranoia of living in Stepford. Levin skillfully uses her perspective to create a psychological thriller atmosphere, where the fear and suspense are primarily rooted in the mind.

Utilization of Dialogue — The dialogue in The Stepford Wives is used effectively to reveal character traits and societal norms. Conversations often hint at the darker undercurrents of Stepford life, with the robotic wives’ dialogue serving as a stark contrast to Joanna’s more dynamic and nuanced speech.

Foreshadowing and Irony — Levin’s use of foreshadowing subtly hints at the grim fate awaiting the women of Stepford, while irony is employed to underscore the tragic disconnect between the characters’ perceptions and the reader’s understanding of their reality.

In The Stepford Wives, Levin’s writing style and tone are instrumental in creating a narrative that is both a captivating thriller and a profound social commentary. The combination of clear, concise writing with atmospheric detail and psychological depth makes the novel an enduring classic in speculative fiction.

Literary Devices used in The Stepford Wives

Ira Levin’s The Stepford Wives is a rich text in terms of literary techniques, which enhance its themes and deepen its impact. Here’s a breakdown of the top 10 literary devices used in the novel:

  1. Foreshadowing — Levin skillfully uses foreshadowing to hint at the dark secrets behind the facade of Stepford’s perfection. Early mentions of the Men’s Association and the eerily compliant behavior of the Stepford wives suggest the unsettling transformations to come.
  2. Irony — There’s a profound irony in the fact that the Stepford men’s quest for the “perfect” wives leads to the destruction of genuine human relationships and ultimately, their wives’ humanity. This irony underscores the critique of superficial societal norms.
  3. Symbolism — Objects and settings in the novel, like Joanna’s camera and the town of Stepford itself, serve as symbols for larger themes. For example, the camera represents Joanna’s autonomy and the town symbolizes the illusory ideal of suburban bliss.
  4. Metaphor — The transformation of women into robotic counterparts serves as a chilling metaphor for the dehumanization and objectification of women, reflecting broader societal issues.
  5. Simile — Levin uses similes sparingly but effectively. Comparisons, such as likening the Stepford wives’ smiles to a television commercial, highlight the artificiality and performance of their roles.
  6. Imagery — Vivid imagery is used to contrast the idyllic appearance of Stepford with the sinister reality beneath. Descriptions of the picturesque town contrast sharply with the mechanical, lifeless nature of the Stepford wives, enhancing the novel’s eerie atmosphere.
  7. Personification — Levin personifies the town of Stepford, giving it characteristics that suggest it’s complicit in the conspiracy against its women. This technique amplifies the sense of paranoia and claustrophobia.
  8. Allusion — References are made to real-life social movements and historical events, situating the novel within a specific cultural context. These allusions enrich the reader’s understanding of the societal critique at the heart of the story.
  9. Parallelism — The narrative structure mirrors the transformations of the women, with their initial vivacity and independence gradually replaced by conformity and passivity. This parallelism underscores the novel’s themes of loss and subjugation.
  10. Dramatic Irony — The reader is often aware of the sinister truth of Stepford before the characters are, creating a sense of dramatic irony. This technique heightens the suspense and horror as readers watch the characters unknowingly walk into danger.

These literary devices are integral to the fabric of The Stepford Wives, weaving together a narrative that is as thought-provoking as it is terrifying. Through these techniques, Levin crafts a story that critically examines societal norms and the cost of conformity.

Literary Devices Examples

Foreshadowing

ExampleExplanation
The early mention of the Men’s Association and its secretive natureThis hints at the pivotal role the Association will play in the story, creating suspense and setting the stage for the wives’ transformations.
Joanna’s discomfort with the overly perfect behavior of the Stepford wivesServes as an early warning sign of the unnaturalness behind their perfection, foreshadowing the dark revelations to come.
The disappearance of Joanna’s friend, Bobbie MarkoweActs as a direct foreshadowing of Joanna’s own fate, suggesting the pattern of transformation among Stepford women.

Irony

ExampleExplanation
The men of Stepford seek perfect wives but lose genuine human connectionsThis highlights the irony of seeking perfection at the expense of authenticity and love, critiquing societal expectations of women.
Joanna moves to Stepford for a better life but finds herself in a nightmareThis situation underlines the irony of the American Dream, where the pursuit of an ideal life leads to unforeseen consequences.

Symbolism

ExampleExplanation
Joanna’s cameraSymbolizes her autonomy and perspective. Its eventual destruction parallels the loss of her independence and identity.
The town of StepfordRepresents the facade of suburban perfection and the dark underbelly of societal norms and expectations.

Metaphor

ExampleExplanation
The transformation of women into robotsActs as a metaphor for the objectification and dehumanization of women, reflecting on societal issues of gender roles and expectations.

Simile

ExampleExplanation
Comparing the Stepford wives’ smiles to those seen in commercialsHighlights the artificiality and performative nature of their roles, emphasizing the superficiality of their existence.

Imagery

ExampleExplanation
Descriptions of Stepford’s idyllic landscapes contrasted with the mechanical behavior of the wivesEvokes a sense of unease, highlighting the disparity between appearance and reality, and enhancing the novel’s eerie atmosphere.

Personification

ExampleExplanation
Giving Stepford qualities that suggest it’s actively participating in the conspiracyAmplifies the sense of paranoia and claustrophobia, making the setting itself feel hostile.

Allusion

ExampleExplanation
References to real-life feminist movementsSituates the novel within its historical and cultural context, enriching the reader’s understanding of its societal critique.

Parallelism

ExampleExplanation
The narrative’s progression from vibrant individuality to uniform passivity among the womenEmphasizes the theme of loss of identity and autonomy, mirroring the women’s transformations.

Dramatic Irony

ExampleExplanation
The reader’s early understanding of the Stepford secret compared to Joanna’s gradual realizationCreates tension and horror, as the audience anticipates the inevitable outcome that the protagonist is unaware of.

Through these examples, Levin’s use of literary devices in The Stepford Wives not only enriches the narrative but also deepens the exploration of its themes, making it a compelling critique of societal norms.

The Stepford Wives – FAQs

What is the main theme of The Stepford Wives by Ira Levin?
The main theme revolves around the subjugation of women, critiquing societal norms that value women primarily for their appearance and subservience to men. It also explores themes of loss of identity, the illusion of perfection, and patriarchal control.

Who are the main characters in The Stepford Wives?
The main characters include Joanna Eberhart, a photographer and the protagonist; Walter Eberhart, Joanna’s husband; Bobbie Markowe, Joanna’s friend who also becomes a victim of Stepford; and Dale Coba, a key figure in the Men’s Association responsible for the transformations.

What is the significance of Stepford in the novel?
Stepford symbolizes the idealized suburban community that hides a sinister secret. It represents the extreme lengths to which societal expectations of gender roles are enforced, leading to the loss of women’s autonomy and identity.

How does Ira Levin use literary devices in The Stepford Wives?
Levin employs various literary devices such as foreshadowing, irony, symbolism, metaphor, and dramatic irony. These enhance the novel’s themes and contribute to its suspenseful and critical examination of societal norms.

Is The Stepford Wives a feminist novel?
Yes, The Stepford Wives is considered a feminist novel as it critiques the objectification and subjugation of women, challenging the traditional gender roles and expectations of the time. It raises questions about autonomy, identity, and the value of women beyond domestic roles.

What happens at the end of The Stepford Wives?
The novel ends on a chilling note as Joanna Eberhart becomes one of the Stepford wives, succumbing to the fate she tried to escape. This conclusion underscores the novel’s themes of conformity and the loss of individuality.

How does The Stepford Wives critique suburban life?
Through its portrayal of Stepford, the novel critiques the superficiality and underlying oppressiveness of suburban life, particularly highlighting how such environments can enforce rigid gender roles and expectations.

Why do the men in Stepford turn their wives into robots?
The men in Stepford turn their wives into robots to create “ideal” partners who are subservient, obsessively focused on domestic chores, and devoid of any individuality or ambition, reflecting their desires for control and a return to traditional gender roles.

What literary genre does The Stepford Wives belong to?
The Stepford Wives is a blend of science fiction, horror, and psychological thriller, using elements from each to explore its themes and deliver its critique of societal norms.

Can The Stepford Wives be read as a satire?
Yes, the novel can be read as a satire, using exaggeration and irony to mock the extreme ideals of perfection in suburban life and traditional marriage, and the absurd lengths to which these ideals are pursued.

Quiz

QuestionABCDCorrect Answer
What is the main setting of The Stepford Wives?New York CityStepford, ConnecticutLos Angeles, CaliforniaSalem, MassachusettsB
Who is the protagonist of the novel?Bobbie MarkoweJoanna EberhartDale CobaWalter EberhartB
What does Joanna Eberhart do for a living?LawyerPhotographerTeacherHomemakerB
Which organization is central to the plot of the novel?The Men’s AssociationThe Stepford Women’s ClubThe National Women’s OrganizationThe Stepford Police DepartmentA
What significant change happens to Bobbie Markowe?She moves away from Stepford.She becomes a successful novelist.She transforms into a Stepford wife.She starts a feminist movement in Stepford.C
What symbolizes Joanna’s autonomy and perspective?Her carHer houseHer cameraHer gardenC
What theme does the transformation of women into robots represent?The advancement of technologyThe joys of suburban lifeThe objectification and dehumanization of womenThe importance of family valuesC
What is the fate of Joanna Eberhart at the end of the novel?She escapes Stepford.She exposes the Men’s Association.She becomes a Stepford wife.She becomes the leader of the Women’s Association.C
How does Ira Levin use irony in the novel?By showing the Stepford wives as more fulfilled than their human counterparts.By having the men prefer robots over real women, losing genuine relationships.By depicting the Stepford Police as the most effective in the country.By revealing the robots as the true masterminds behind Stepford.B
Which literary device is used to hint at the dark secrets behind Stepford’s perfection?MetaphorSimileForeshadowingPersonificationC

This quiz is designed to test comprehension and understanding of key aspects of The Stepford Wives by Ira Levin, including its characters, themes, and literary devices.

Exercise

Identify the Literary Devices Used in the Following Paragraph from The Stepford Wives:

“As Joanna turned the corner onto Elm Street, Stepford unfolded before her like a scene from a too-perfect dream. The lawns were manicured to perfection, each blade of grass seemingly measured for uniformity. The houses, with their gleaming white facades and picturesque shutters, whispered promises of a serene domestic bliss. Yet, beneath this idyllic surface, a shadow of unease crept into Joanna’s heart, a silent scream that something was fundamentally amiss.”

Answers:

  1. Simile — “like a scene from a too-perfect dream.” This compares Stepford’s appearance to an overly perfect dream, suggesting an unnatural perfection.
  2. Imagery — Descriptions of manicured lawns, uniform blades of grass, gleaming white facades, and picturesque shutters create a vivid image of the town’s surface perfection.
  3. Personification — “The houses… whispered promises of a serene domestic bliss.” The houses are given the human ability to whisper promises, enhancing the eerie atmosphere.
  4. Foreshadowing — “Yet, beneath this idyllic surface, a shadow of unease crept into Joanna’s heart…” This suggests that despite the perfect appearance of Stepford, there is something deeply wrong, hinting at the dark revelations to come.
  5. Metaphor — “a silent scream that something was fundamentally amiss.” This metaphor describes Joanna’s intuition of danger as a “silent scream,” indicating a profound yet unvoiced fear.

This exercise is designed to help students recognize and understand the use of literary devices in creating mood, character insight, and thematic depth within The Stepford Wives.

The Stepford Wives by Ira Levin: Study Guide & Literary Analysis (2024)

FAQs

What is the message of The Stepford Wives? ›

The Stepford Wives undoubtedly provides an understanding of the Second-Wave of Feminism's goal to secure sexual freedom for women and ensure their autonomy over their own bodies. Additionally, the film also explores the way in which women are expected to adhere to male-determined standards of beauty.

What is the short summary of the book The Stepford Wives? ›

The story concerns Joanna Eberhart, a talented photographer, wife, and young mother who suspects that something in the town of Stepford is changing the wives from free-thinking, intelligent women into compliant wives dedicated solely to homemaking. As her friends slowly transform, Joanna realizes the horrific truth.

Is Stepford Wives a feminist book? ›

The Stepford Wives, novel by American author Ira Levin, published in 1972. It has been described as the first “feminist horror novel,” with echoes of Levin's earlier horror masterpiece Rosemary's Baby.

What is the foreshadowing in The Stepford Wives? ›

After Joanna takes a refreshing shower and ties her hair back, she looks relaxed and beautiful, and when Walter sees her, he pays her this compliment. His statement foreshadows the future transformation that Joanna undergoes when her personality and voice are implanted into an animatronic robot, and she is killed.

What is the significance or symbolic value of Joanna's role as a photographer in The Stepford Wives? ›

Joanna's Photography

Joanna's passion for photography—and the fact that she gives it up at the end of the novel—symbolizes the challenges that sexist, male-dominated societies pose for women with their own ambitions and aspirations.

What inspired Ira Levin to write The Stepford Wives? ›

“The Stepford Wives” was inspired by a section in Alvin Toffler's book “Future Shock” on domestic robots. Levin noted that he wrote the book just after divorcing. “I was feeling pretty bitter about the relationship between the sexes,” he said.

What happened to Joanna in Stepford Wives? ›

Eventually, Joanna correctly guesses that the men of Stepford have been turning their wives into robots, but Walter and his friends manage to convince her that she's crazy before she can escape. Made to feel irrational and “hysterical,” she stops trying to run away—a decision that seals her fate as a subservient robot.

How did the original Stepford Wives end? ›

In the end, Joanna's smiling double advances and strangles the real Joanna with a stocking. The actual murder takes place off-screen, but there can be no doubt about what happened: When we next see Ross, she's in the Stepford supermarket with all the other wives, walking about the store in fully automated mode.

What is the climax of Stepford Wives? ›

Climax: During the ball, Walter sneaks into the factory reverses the women's programming. Climactic Moment: Claire, the mastermind behind the town, is electrocuted by her robot husband's severed head. Resolution: The men are all put under house arrest, while Joanna and her friends return to fame and talk to Larry King.

What happens at the end of Stepford Wives 1975? ›

It is then suggested that the Joanna-duplicate strangles the real Joanna. In the final scene, the duplicate is seen placidly purchasing groceries at the local supermarket, along with the other "wives" all wearing similar long dresses, large hats and saying little more than hello to each other.

What is the race in The Stepford Wives? ›

Levin even touches on themes of race with the introduction of a black character, Ruthanne, who wonders if the Stepford wives' weirdness comes from their repressed hostility towards her and her family when she moves into the neighbourhood.

Is Don't Worry Darling based on Stepford Wives? ›

'Don't Worry Darling' may be inspired by 'The Stepford Wives', but it fails to do justice to the sharp premise. The following article contains mild spoilers for the movie 'Don't Worry Darling'.

Is there a sequel to Stepford Wives? ›

What is the meaning of Stepford wife? ›

(derogatory) A woman who unquestioningly submits to and serves her male partner, and/or does not seem to have interests, wishes, or pursuits of her own.

Where are the houses in Stepford Wives? ›

Filming locations
  • Lockwood-Mathews Mansion - 295 West Avenue, Norwalk, Connecticut, USA. Helpful•8. ...
  • Fairfield County, Connecticut, USA. Helpful•7. ...
  • Norwalk, Connecticut, USA. Helpful•7. ...
  • Greenwich, Connecticut, USA. (location) Helpful•6. ...
  • Bedminster, New Jersey, USA. (location) Helpful•6.

What happened to Joanna Stepford's wives? ›

The Stepford Wives was a book written by author Ira Levin that was released in 1972 but Joanna's fate in both the book and the 1975 film adaption of the book? Joanna becomes a ROBOT at the end of both! and was written as a photographer, not a successful executive producer!

What does it mean to be a Stepford daughter? ›

In this sense, Amelia is, like other feminized people of horror discussed in this book, a “Stepford Daughter.” By this, I mean that the women of contemporary horror and of the contemporary world at large have inherited the oppressive conditions of the housewife but are examples of how these problems historically ...

Who is Ruthanne in The Stepford Wives and why is she important? ›

Joanna meets a woman at the library named Ruthanne Hendry. Ruthanne is the first Black woman in Stepford and is a famous feminist children's author. Ruthanne thinks the people in Stepford are antisocial toward her because of her skin color, but Joanna assures her they are that way with everyone.

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